Victoria and South Australia

Ash Wednesday Bushfire, 1983

Quick Statistics

75 Fatalities
1500 Injured
176 Million Insurance Costs
2000 Homes Destroyed

Prior to the events on Ash Wednesday, a drought lasting ten months had dried out the eastern Australian forests. The context on 16 February was characterised by heatwave conditions, low humidity and strong to gale force winds. Temperatures varied between the high thirties to mid forties over most of eastern South Australia and Victoria, with relative humidity generally at less than 15 per cent. 

In Victoria, 47 people died, 150,000 hectares were burnt, 1620 houses and more than 1500 other buildings were destroyed and 32,400 livestock were lost.

In South Australia, 28 people died, including three CFS volunteer fire fighters. More than 1500 people were injured, 383 homes and 200 other buildings were destroyed and 160 000 hectares were burnt. 

The Insurance Council of Australia estimated the 1983 damage for Victoria at $138 million and South Australia at $38 million; the 2011 estimated repeated cost was $1489 million for Victoria and $307 million for South Australia.


In the summer of 1982-3, the Victorian bushfire season commenced in November, with bushfires affecting Ballan, Cann River, Mount Donna Buang, and Mount Macedon (on 1 February). By early morning on Ash Wednesday, 104 fires were already burning in Victoria. Most were controlled or contained; after 2.00pm however, the situation escalated dramatically.

The Victorian fires formed several complexes:

Western district near Warrnambool

This fire started from a defective private power line. The resulting fire front was kilometres wide and moved at rapid speed. A cool change came through at 5.00pm; the wind changed to the south-west, and the fire moved toward the town of Terang. The fire passed the town to its north and was brought under control the next day. In total, nine people died, 50,000 hectares were burnt, 157 houses were destroyed and 19,300 head of  livestock were lost. Another fatality occurred near Branxholme from a smaller fire caused by a power line fault.

East Trentham– Macedon fire complex

This fire began at approximately 2.00pm near East Trentham due to two powerlines touching and sparking. The fire moved to the Wombat State Forest and burnt much of Bullengarook. The fire stalled for a time, but picked up again following a wind change to the south-west, and moved towards Woodend at 8.30pm with a 7m fire front. The fire reached Macedon where people and animals sheltered in the Hotel protected by volunteers. The rest of the town was annihilated. After reaching the top of Mount Macedon, the fire was controlled in an area that was previously burnt on 1 February. Seven people died, 20,000 hectares were burnt, and 200 homes were destroyed in Macedon – 150 on Mount Macedon, 50 in Bullengarook and 20 in Woodend.

Otways complex

The fire broke out at approximately 3.00pm at Deans Marsh and moved toward Lorne, and eventually onto the ridges above the town. The fire then moved down to the sand dunes, where many took refuge in the sea. The fire continued to burn towards  Aireys Inlet, where fibro houses were hit by walls of flame and an immense firestorm. Moving at extraordinary speed, the fire then moved through Anglesea; houses were lost, but the main part of town was saved. The fire burnt on through the night toward Jan Juc and Torquay and was eventually contained early morning near Bellbrae. Three people were killed and 578 houses and other buildings were lost.

Upper Beaconsfield – Cockatoo complex

This fire began in Belgrave Heights north of Berwick and moved 15km toward Berwick and Pakenham. A subsequent strong south westerly wind change at 8.50pm redirected the fire towards Upper Beaconsfield; two firefighting crews were trapped on a narrow bush track, leading to 12 fatalities.

A second fire which had started near Cockatoo at about 7.30 pm spread slowly until the wind change at approximately 9.00pm, when it then rapidly progressed into the township. An estimated 300 people successfully sheltered overnight in the local kindergarten which was defended from embers and residual flames by community members.

In total, 27 people died, 100 were injured and 535 houses and buildings were destroyed.

Warburton complex

This fire erupted in the foothills of mountain ash forests. It began in Millgrove at 7.30pm and quickly progressed to Warburton. Approximately 200 people took shelter at the local oval and at a creek in an underground tunnel. Thirty houses were destroyed.

South Australia

Major fires were burning by noon on Ash Wednesday, particularly in the Adelaide Hills, Clare Valley 120km north of Adelaide, and around Mount Gambier, in the south-east of the state.  By 3pm the situation was extreme. A subsequent cold front hit with winds of 90 to 100 km per hour, aggravating the intensity of the fires.  By 9pm, rain began to fall and the fires in the Adelaide hills came under control; the fires near Mount Gambier burned for a longer period.


Recommended reading


  • Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) 1983, Preliminary report on the Ash Wednesday fires - 16 February 1983, BOM, Melbourne
  • Gibbons, D & Paul, M 1990, Community development after the Macedon and Mt. Macedon bushfires on Ash Wednesday - 16 February 1983, Broadmeadows TAFE, Broadmeadows
  • Mundie E 1983, Cockatoo Ash Wednesday 1983: the people's story, Hyland House, Melbourne
  • O'Conner P & B 1993, Out of the ashes: the Ash Wednesday bushfires in the south east of SA, 16th February, 1983, Mt Gambier, SA
  • Victorian Country Fire Authority (CFA) 1983, Report on Ash Wednesday, CFA, Melbourne

Journal articles

  • Bell, A 1985, 'How bushfires set houses alight: lessons from Ash Wednesday,' Ecos, no. 43, pp. 3-7
  • Johns, L 1984, 'Lessons for the future : Ash Wednesday 1983,' Volunteer, vol. 22, pp. 22-24
  • McFarlane, A 1987, 'Firefighters and the psychological effects of the Ash Wednesday Bushfires: implications for disaster planners and emergency services,' The Macedon Digest, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 2
  • Pinches, A 1983, 'Ash Wednesday: reviews, reports and recriminations,' The Australian Municipal Journal, November, pp. 147-149
  • Valent, P 1984, 'The Ash Wednesday bushfires in Victoria,' The Medical Journal of Australia, no. 141, pp. 291-300

Information sources

Collins P, Burn: the epic story of bushfire in Australia, Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 2006, pp 207-226
Country Fire Authority, About Ash Wednesday, website viewed 8 August 2011
Department of Sustainability and Environment, Ash Wednesday bushfire – 1983, website viewed 8 August 2011
Insurance Council of Australia, Historical disaster statistics, March 2012, website viewed 23 May 2012